Just as the world economy was stabilizing after its worst performance in a decade, a U.S. airstrike in Iraq that killed one of Iran’s most powerful generals is a jolting reminder of how fragile the outlook remains.

A tentative trade agreement between the U.S. and China had buoyed expectations that global growth would start to rebound this year. Business confidence has slowly been improving as key manufacturing gauges show signs of bottoming out.

Now, the U.S.-Iran flare-up could nip any positive sentiment in the bud. A sustained rise in oil prices -- futures in London and New York surged by more than 4% on the news -- would hurt economies that rely on energy imports, and suppress consumer demand.

“The situation reminds me of the game of Whack-A-Mole,” said Wellian Wiranto, an economist at Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp. in Singapore. “Just when the market started to be relieved that trade war escalation risk has subsided, another risk-off event pops up seemingly from nowhere.”

Oil Spike

Much will hinge on whether any spike in oil prices is sustained. A sharp rise in oil would have a significant negative impact on economies beyond the Middle East.

Higher energy costs impact economies in different ways. Countries that are net energy importers would see household income and spending hurt, and inflation could accelerate. As the world’s biggest importer of oil, China is vulnerable; many European countries also rely on imported energy.

Emerging markets that dominate the list of oil-producing nations could earn greater revenues, helping to plug current-account deficits.

Still, Charlie Robertson, London-based chief economist for Renaissance Capital Ltd., said worries about higher energy costs linked to geopolitical turbulence have come and gone many times over the past decade.

While there’s always a risk that disrupted supplies will threaten economic growth, there are key buffers in place to withstand it, he said.

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