Anyone trying to understand how ESG investing got to where it is today might be surprised to find that its origins can be traced to some unexpected places.

In 1970, economist Milton Friedman wrote an article in the New York Times arguing that the primary overarching responsibility of a corporation was to produce profits for its shareholders. In his book Free To Choose, the future Nobel laureate maintained that the singular purpose of pursuing profits was justifiable as long as the company engaged “in open and free competition without deception or fraud.”

Friedman dismissed executives who reasoned their business should have a “social conscience” and take “seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else may be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers. In fact they are—or would be if they or anyone else took them seriously—preaching pure and unadulterated socialism.”

This caustic critique of corporate responsibility nearly coincided with the advent of Earth Day on April 22, 1970. But experts say the “G” (governance) in ESG established itself before the “E” (environmental) component.

After riding a post-World War II economic boom and a 17-year bull market ending in 1966, corporate America grew fat, happy and calcified. Managements were seen as looking after their own interests, not those of shareholders.

Investors gradually became frustrated during the 15-year bear market from 1966 to 1982. As the U.S. economy and equity market stagnated, Friedman’s analysis developed a following. An entire ecosystem of activist investors, arbitrageurs and corporate raiders appeared on the scene eager to profit off the mismanagement of undervalued public companies.

Once derided as rubber stamps displaying feckless support of management, corporate boards started to embrace a stronger sense of fiduciary responsibility beginning in the 1980s. Previous generations of directors often sided with entrenched management teams, but as the decade unfolded, the goal of maximizing value for shareholders ultimately reigned supreme.

With the concept of more aggressive capitalism gaining currency, intensified scrutiny of management led to improved oversight and corporate governance. Institutional investors who had once voted with their feet and dumped shares of badly run businesses began to demand more accountability. By the late 1980s, underperforming companies were being sold in hostile takeovers, and CEOs were getting ousted with regularity.

Today, many veteran asset managers would argue they’ve been using governance criteria as a key investment requirement long before “ESG” was a household word, according to Dana D’Auria, co-chief investment officer at Envestnet. Historical studies have consistently found that companies with stronger balance sheets and higher levels of profitability have outperformed over time.

Depending on whom one talks to these days, ESG is either the first truly unique, innovative concept in the asset management business in the last 30 years or, as Alicia Munnell, director of Boston College’s Center for Retirement Research has said, the latest marketing gimmick of active asset managers desperate for tricks as they fail to keep up with index investing. And there is still a sizable contingent of people who share Friedman’s original critique of corporate responsibility and believe that ESG is simply the latest variant of socialist mush promulgated by limousine lefties.

Whatever your take is, the ability of ESG funds to attract assets has overwhelmed the money management world. A decade-long run in asset-light tech stocks with minimal environmental footprints has fueled the boom—and the performance numbers of many ESG funds and ETFs have been spectacular enough to induce envy among the concept’s critics. This was exacerbated by the pandemic and the work-from-home phenomenon it created.

In the favorable environment of 2020 and 2021, many ESG funds and ETFs managed to outperform a soaring S&P 500, and investors have taken notice.

In a recent report, Big 4 accounting firm Deloitte wrote that, at their current growth rate, ESG-mandated assets were on track to represent half of all professionally managed assets globally by 2024. (It defined ESG mandated assets as “professionally managed assets in which ESG issues are considered in selecting investments or shareholder resolutions are filed on ESG issues at publicly traded companies.”)

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