The last time New Jersey railroad employees walked off the job, displaced Manhattan commuters turned to fill-in charter buses for more than a month.

Thirty-three years later, as members of Congress try to head off a New Jersey Transit strike authorized for March 13, the nation’s third-biggest mass-transit provider again is counting on motor coaches to cross the Hudson River.

The Lincoln Tunnel, though, has no space for the traffic crush. Neither does Manhattan’s obsolete Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world’s busiest. At rush hour, New Jersey Transit’s bus drivers navigate some of the nation’s hairiest roads and merges, plus twisting ramps and narrow gates in a depot not designed for today’s wider, taller, heavier vehicles.

“Just hiring someone with the experience of driving a bus is a little different from, ‘Have you navigated the Lincoln Tunnel express bus lane and the Port Authority?”’ said Michael Phelan, co-founder of the New Jersey Commuters Action Network. “What’s going to happen when you have amateurs driving into those tubes on a Monday morning?”

Transportation funding is at a crisis in New Jersey, whose economy relies on access to New York City, international airports and ocean terminals. On June 30, the state will have exhausted the five-year $8 billion fund for highway and rail, and leaders haven’t introduced a successor. New Jersey Transit rail commuters are paying more even as they endure crowding, an aging power system, a balky swing bridge and limited capacity in the Hudson River tunnels. The Gateway project, a $23.9 billion Amtrak proposal to remedy some of the tie-ups, wouldn’t be complete until 2030.

Now, passengers may have to contend with a strike. New Jersey Transit is “developing a robust alternative service plan,” Dennis Martin, the interim executive director, said by e- mail on Feb. 17. “We remain focused on reaching an affordable settlement with our rail unions.”

Now Hiring

Martin said it was premature to disclose details of that alternative plan. A clue was in a newspaper advertisement seeking operators to provide a minimum 50 buses per day for routes that may include New York City.

That was the playbook in 1983, when 500 contracted buses took over during a strike that displaced 70,000 daily train riders. Today, Manhattan alone accounts for 87,130 of 295,173 train trips a day. Commuters who go by bus through the Lincoln Tunnel routinely endure miles-long backups, and on separate occasions last year, traffic was frozen for hours by a bus-depot fatality and a tunnel crash.

New York City officials anticipate about 120 buses daily, “necessitating traffic planning and storage options in Manhattan,” Wiley Norvell, a spokesman for Mayor Bill de Blasio, said by e-mail.

Haggling Hard

The sides have scheduled more talks, with a focus on medical costs and wage increases, according to Steve Burkert, a spokesman for the unions. “We have done everything in our power not to go on strike,” he said in a Feb. 17 interview.

Labor contracts expired in 2011 for 4,200 unionized rail workers. An emergency negotiating board appointed by President Barack Obama recommended that New Jersey Transit adopt the final offer made by the Rail Labor Coalition, representing 11 unions, at a cost of $183 million.

The offer called for a six-and-a-half-year contract with annual raises of 1.5 percent to 3.5 percent and a maximum 5 percent annual health-care contribution, according to the presidential board report. New Jersey Transit’s offer of 7 1/2 years skipped raises for 2011, awarded $1,000 lump-sum payments for 2012 and had annual increases of 1 percent to 2.5 percent. Employees were to cover as much as 20 percent of their medical costs.

New Jersey Transit said the state can’t afford the recommendation. Then-Executive Director Ronnie Hakim said that under federal rules, the railroad has reached the maximum diversion of capital funding to operating costs, according to the board’s Jan. 11 report. Higher fares, “aside from its political unacceptability, would divert riders,” the panel wrote.